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Product Lifecycle

The product life cycle comprises the entire life of a product, from raw material extraction and acquisition, through material production and manufacturing, to use and end of life treatment including recycling and final disposal. In other words, a product life cycle encompasses the consecutive and interlinked stages of a product from cradle to grave, or rather from cradle to cradle with regard to recycling.

Life cycle assessment of OSRAM products

Our products affect the environment in a variety of ways. Obviously, they are made in factories that have an environmental footprint and they significantly impact on the environment during their use. However, in order to evaluate our products and how they actually deal with energy and resources, it is not enough just to consider single stages of their life cycle. Thus, the life cycle analysis (LCA) of a products consider the environmental aspects and potential environmental impacts of a product throughout its entire life cycle.

In order to assess the environmental performance of OSRAM products, life cycle analyses of several specific products were conducted, representing different technologies. The method for these analyses was an assessment following the international standards ISO 14040 and 14044. Apart from the primary energy consumption, the impact on the environment was evaluated in specific categories. The LCA below, were calculated with the life cycle modelling program GaBi.

Primary energy demand

Primary energy is the energy embodied in natural resources like coal, oil or sunlight that has not yet undergone any anthropogenic transformation such as the conversion to electricity. The primary energy demand is ideal for comparison purposes as it summarizes the energy needed for the different stages of a product life cycle.

The life cycle analyses of the below evaluated OSRAM products showed that the use phase is responsible for almost all of the energy consumption, ranging up to above 95 percent. Correspondingly, the energy demand during manufacturing and other life cycle stages played a rather insignificant role.

 

LCA - LED Indoor Luminaire




Taris is the new range of luminaires for universal lighting in offices and public buildings. Thanks to the many variants they are suitable for a wide range of applications, from classic screen-based offices and educational establishments to break rooms and ancillary rooms. The basis for its harmonious light and high visual comfort is the Optical Core System, a combination of louvre and lens technology with all-round light-guiding structures. Taris is suitable for new lighting systems and as an efficient replacement for conventional systems with T16/T26 lamps.

Product homepage: Taris LED 

 

Electrical and optical data

Unit Value
Power Consumption (elec.) W 30
Luminous Flux lm 3930
Luminous efficacy
lm/W 131
Lifetime (L80/B50) h 50,000
Weight kg 2.9
Dimensions
mm 600 x 600; 625 x 625

 

 
Material Composition

Material Weight Percentage
PC/ABS

1,965 g

67.8 %
PC 60 g 2.1 %
PMMA 522 g 18 %
NON-FERROUS METAL 51 g 1.8 %
ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS 179 g 6.2 %
FERROUS METAL 85 g 2.9%
OTHER 20 g 0.7%
TOTAL 2,900 g 100%

 

 

Environmental impact of all life cycle phases

Impact Category Unit Production Use End of Life
Cumulative Energy Demand (CED) MJ 651 16,615 -18
Global Warming Potential KgCO2eq. 31.4 917 6.3
Acidification Potential (AP) Kg SO2eq. 0.0947 1.36 -
Eutrophication Potential (EP) Kg PO4eq. 0.0104 0.218 -
Photochemical Ozone Creation Potential (POCP) Kg ethene eq. 0.0075 0.0945 -
Human Toxicity Potential (HTP) Kg DCB eq. 6.07 30.9 1.28
Abiotic Depletion Potential (ADP) (fossil) MJ 487 8.93 -
Water consumption l 5,040 9,480 0.36

 

 

Determining the CED (Cumulative Energy Demand) of the LED indoor luminaire Taris

  • Production phase

To determine the amount of energy needed in the manufacturing phase, all the materials used, their masses and production steps had to be considered. Transportation of the components during this phase was also taken into account.

  • Usage phase

1.) Electrical energy consumption during life (50,000 hours) 30 WEl·50,000 h = 1500 kWhEl
2.) Energy mix (includes average power plant efficiency) 1 kWhEl requires 3.076 kWhPrim
3.) Cumulative energy demand

1500 kWhEl·3.076 = 4615 kWhPrim

4615 kWhPrim·3.6 = 16,615 MJPrim
  • End of Life phase

In this assessment, combustion of the plastic components in a municipal waste incineration, in conjunction with a power plant, has been assumed. Therefore, a small amount of energy could be recovered and reused. In addition, recycling of the metal components will provide a small benefit compared to extracting new materials. In other impact categories the disposal/recycling phase is negligible.

 

 

Comparison of CED during the usage phase of different lighting technologies

 

To determine the energetic amortization of a new LED lighting system, Taris was compared with two luminaires with older technologies (T8 fluorescent lamp with conventional control gear (CCG) and T5 fluorescent lamp with electronic control gear (ECG)). For these luminaires, a total power consumption of 90 W and 63 W respectively was assumed so that they deliver an almost identical luminous flux. Their production energy has been neglected, because they are assumed as already existing and dedicated for replacement by Taris luminaires. Only the CED of the production of four replacement fluorescent lamps per luminaire was taken into account (about 20 MJ/luminaire).

After less than 1000 hours of operation the LED luminaire Taris, when compared with the T8 luminaire, has saved as much energy as its production has needed (1700 hours compared with the T5 luminaire).

 

Interpreting the results

This analysis shows that the greatest amount of energy in the life cycle of an LED luminaire is consumed during the usage phase. It is strongly recommended to use an energy efficient system with a high efficacy (lm/W) in order to improve the environmental performance and reduce the impact of a lighting system. As seen in the lighting system comparison up to 70% of energy can be saved during operation.

 

 

LCA - LED power supply




Constant current LED driver incl. OSRAM DALI features.

OSRAM OTi DALI 60 is a standard ECG that enables a connected LED to be dimmed via a DALI interface. Thanks to its flexible output characteristics it can be used in numerous applications.

Flexible, reliable solution for energy saving lighting: DALI dimmable & programmable, embedded corridor functionality and advanced TouchDIM with daylight harvesting, constant lumen output. Automatic current set through the LEDSet interface.

Product family homepage: OSRAM OTi DALI

 

 

Electrical data

  Unit Value
Maximum output power W  90 
Liftetime  h  50,000 
Power loss during operation  W  5 
Power loss during standby  W  <0.25 
Dimensions  mm  280 x 30 x 21 

Material Composition

Material Weight Percentage
Metal components

85 g

41.5 %
Electronic components 108.1 52.7 %
Plastic components 10.5 g  5.1 % 
Silicone-free thermal pads  1.4 g  0.7 % 
 TOTAL 205 g 100%

 

Calculating CED (Cumulative energy demand) during the life cycle of an ECG

  •  Production phase

The following figure shows the cumulative energy demand during the production phase of the ECG 


A total of about 99 MJ of primary energy is needed to produce an ECG. Most of the energy is consumed by the production of the two microcontrollers and other semiconductors.

 

  • Usage phase

During operation, the ECG has a power loss of 5 W at most. The figure below shows the resulting CED in the production, usage and recycling phase. The CED of the usage phase has been calculated as follows:

 

1.) Electrical energy consumption during life (50,000 hours)  5 WEl·50,000 h = 250 kWhEl  
2.) Energy mix (includes average power plant efficiency)  1 kWhEl requires 3.076 kWhPrim
3.)  Cumulated energy demand 

250 kWhEl·3.076 kWhPrim/kWhEl =769 kWhPrim

769 kWhPrim * 3.6 = 2768 MJPrim

The following figure shows the results of this life cycle assessment. For the End of Life phase, there is a small benefit through the re-use of metal from the ECG housing components. This represents the energy saved in comparison to the use of newly extracted material. Regarding the recycling of electronic components, no appropriate data could be gathered from the database. However, according to former LCA and considering the other phases of the life cycle, this step is negligible.

 

 

Interpreting the results

It has been shown that most of the energy in the life cycle of this electronic control gear is consumed during the usage phase. This energy is not represented by any useful energy, but by the power losses during operation, causing warming of the ECG. Use of a highly efficient ECG with low losses during operation is strongly recommended. 

LCA - LED light engine





A light engine consists of a printed circuit board (PCB) with several LED chips mounted on it. With mechanical and electrical fixings, it is ready for being installed in an LED luminaire.

The OSRAM PrevaLED Linear Value 3 is a family of light engines that can be applied in long field or panel luminaires. They assure a quick and simple installation and homogenous illumination. With its performance it is suitable for office or industry application. 

Product family homepage: OSRAM PrevaLED

 

 

 

Electrical data


Unit Value
Electrical power input W 4.1...14.1
Luminous flux lm 680...2335
Luminous efficacy lm/W up to 165
Average liftetime (L80/B10) h 50,000
Length mm 280 or 560
Width
mm 32.6

In this LCA, a light engine of 280 mm length was evaluated. 24 middle power SMD-LEDs are arranged on its conducting board. It consumes an electrical power of 7.1 W and delivers a luminous flux of 1,100 lm.

 

Material Composition

Component Material Weight Percentage
Printed Circuit Board CEM3

27.5 g

93.2 %
SMD-LEDs Electronic components 0.8 g 2.8 %
Connectors Liquid Crystal Polymer, copper alloy 1.2 g 4.0 %
TOTAL 29.5 g 100%

 

Determining the CED (Cumulative Energy Demand) of the LED light engine

  • Production phase

To determine the amount of energy needed in the manufacturing phase, all the materials used, their masses and production steps had to be considered.

 

  • Usage phase
1.) Electrical energy consumption during life (50,000 hours) 7.1 WEl·50,000 h = 355 kWhEl
2.) Energy mix (includes average power plant efficiency) 1 kWhEl requires 3.076 kWhPrim
3.) Cumulative energy demand - Use phase

355 kWhEl·3.076 kWhPrim/kWh
1092 kWhPrim

1092kWhPrim* 3.6 = 3932 MJPrim

The following figure shows the results of this life cycle assessment. For the End of Life phase of electronic components, no meaningful data could be generated for the database. However, according to former LCA and considering the usage phase of the life cycle, this step can be neglected.

 

 

 

Interpreting the results

 

The LCA shows hat most of the energy in the life cycle of a LED light engine is consumed during the usage phase. Only 0.4 % of the accumulated energy is needed during the production phase. For the disposal phase no meaningful data could be generated from the database. 
In order to reduce the energy consumption for lighting, we recommend to use products with high luminous efficacy. 

 
 

LCA - Lamps for general lighting

In this life cycle assessments different lamps for general lighting were compared regarding their total environmental impacts throughout the entire life cycle.

Hence, the life cycles of four domestic lighting products were the object of comparison. A 40 W incandescent lamp was compared with a halogen lamp, a compact fluorescent lamp and an LED lamp, all featuring similar lumen outputs. To ensure comparability of the different lamp types a lifetime of 25 000 hours was taken as a reference parameter. This can either be provided by one LED lamp with an average lifetime of 25 000 hours or several lamps with shorter lifetimes.

Number of lamps required for 25 000 hours of light

Number of lamps required for 25 000 hours of light

The graph below shows the total primary energy demand of the above-mentioned lamp types in comparison. It immediately becomes clear that the incandescent lamp has the highest impact due to its energy demand. By comparison, the efficient LED lamp and compact fluorescent lamp demonstrate a much lower energy demand and are therefore preferable. Moreover, the graph outlines the difference in energy demand between the manufacturing and use phase. It demonstrates the comparatively minute impact of the energy consumption during manufacturing. Although the influence is small, it can still be seen that compact fluorescent and LED lamps require far less primary energy during production than the corresponding number of incandescent and halogen lamps needed to provide light for 25 000 hours.


Cumulated Energy Demand based on 25 000 hours of light

Cumulated Energy Demand based on 25 000 hours of light

The above-mentioned specific lamps are not exactly equivalent but feature a similar light output. Nevertheless, the general statement remains the same. As the energy consumption during use is the most significant impact of the lamps, the luminous efficacy is the most important sustainability indicator. Numerous independent institutions such as the US Department of Energy or the Swiss Materials Science & Technology Institution (EMPA) came to similar results.

 

 

 

The following pages provide detailed information on the single life cycle assessments of the specific lamps and their results.

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